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Untimely Meditations ❴EPUB❵ ✴ Untimely Meditations Author Friedrich Nietzsche – Buyprobolan50.co.uk The four early essays in Untimely Meditations are key documents for understanding the development of Nietzsche s thought and clearly anticipate many of his later writings They deal with such broad top The four early essays in Untimely Meditations are key documents for understanding the development of Nietzsche s thought and clearly anticipate many of his later writings They deal with such broad topics as the relationship between popular and genuine culture, strategies for cultural reform, the task of philosophy, the nature of education, and the relationship among art, science and life This new edition presents R J Hollingdale s translation of the essays and a new introduction by Daniel Breazeale, who places them in their historical context and discusses their significance for Nietzsche s philosophy.


10 thoughts on “Untimely Meditations

  1. Stephanie Ricker Stephanie Ricker says:

    Nietzsche is not as great as he thinks he is Also, Schopenhauer isn t as great as Nietzsche thinks he is Wagner isn t as great as Nietzsche thinks he is although his music is pretty great, he s a jerk Nietzsche is terribly quoteable, however The thing is, you can t really run around spouting out Nietzsche quotes without people looking at you strangely.


  2. Shyam Shyam says:

    what he has to say about the deficiencies of an entertainment culture ruled by public opinion is certainly not without contemporary relevanceIntroduction, Daniel Breazeale One of the central theses of the Meditations is that every genuine and original thinker requires a degree of radical personal independence that is simply incompatible with any sort of institutional affiliation or sponsorship It is the very independence of the true philosopher s mode of living that confirms his or h what he has to say about the deficiencies of an entertainment culture ruled by public opinion is certainly not without contemporary relevanceIntroduction, Daniel Breazeale One of the central theses of the Meditations is that every genuine and original thinker requires a degree of radical personal independence that is simply incompatible with any sort of institutional affiliation or sponsorship It is the very independence of the true philosopher s mode of living that confirms his or her right to be taken seriously as a philosophical educatorIntroduction, Daniel Breazeale__________ There is, indeed, rejoicing that now science is becoming to dominate life that condition may, possibly, be attained but life thus dominated is not of much value because it is far less living and guarantees far less life for the future than did a former life dominated not by knowledge but by instinct and powerful illusions But the present age is, as aforesaid, supposed to be an age, not of whole, mature and harmonious personalities, but of labour and of the greatest possible common utility That means, however, that men have to be adjusted to the purposes of the age so as to be ready for employment as soon as possible they must labour in the factories of the general good before they are mature, indeed so that they shall not become mature for this would be a luxury which would deprive the labour market of a great deal of its workforce Some birds are blinded so that they may singbeautifully I do not think the men of today singbeautifully than their grandfathers, but I know they have been blindedOn the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life, 7__________David Strauss, the Confessor and the Writer In any event, there exists a steadfast belief and an in fact notorious cultural deficiency seems to be apparent only to the select few For all those whose views coincide with public opinion have covered their eyes and stoppered their ears the incongruity must not be admitted to exist2 But systematic and oppressive philistinism does not constitute a culture, even an inferior culture, merely because it possesses a system it must always be the antithesis of a culture, namely a permanently established barbarity 2 An unhappy contortion must have taken place in the brain of the cultural philistine he regards as culture precisely that which negates culture, and since he is accustomed to proceed with consistency he finally acquires a coherent collection of such negations, a system of un culture, to which one might even conceded a certain unity of style if it made any sense to speak of a barbarism with style 2 Public opinion in aesthetic matters is so insipid, uncertain, and easily misled, that it beholds such an exhibition of the sorriest philistinism without protest5 But it is true that people of a certain age find it impossible to understand Kant6a reason that has overstepped the bounds of the permitted 7 For it is precisely in such books that we find that repellent need for entertainment and that casual, only half listening accommodation with philosophy and culture and with the serious things of life in general 8accustomed to the slime of this newspaper language they have in the strictest sense of the word lost all taste, and the most their tongue can still savour with any kind of pleasure is the totally corrupt and capricious 11 __________On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life like an illuminated diary of his youth and in all this he finds himself again himself, his force, this industry, his joy, his judgement, his folly and vices 3a restless, cosmopolitan hunting after new and ever newer things 3 What happens all too often is that we know the good but do not do it3 We moderns have nothing whatever of our own only by replenishing and cramming ourselves with the ages, customs, arts, philosophies, religions, discoveries of others do we become anything worthy of notice, that is to say, walking encyclopaedias, which is what an Ancient Greek transported into our own time would perhaps take us for With encyclopaedias, however, all the value lies in what is contained within, in the content, not in what stands without, the binding and cover so it is that the whole of modern culture is essentially inward on the outside the bookbinder has printed some such thing as Handbook of inward culture for outward barbarians 4but as a whole it remains weak because all those beautiful threads are not wound together into a powerful knot 4 Modern man suffers from a weakened personality 5 While the free personality has never before been commended so volubly, there are no personalities to be seen, let alone free personalities nothing but anxiously muffled up identical people Individuality has withdrawn within from without it has become invisible5 In an age which suffers from this universal education, to what an unnatural, artificial and in any case unworthy state must the most truthful of all sciences, the honest naked goddess philosophy, be reduced In such a world of compelled external uniformity it must remain the learned monologue of the solitary walker, the individual s chance capture, the hidden secret of the chamber, or the harmless chatter of academic old men and children No one dares venture to fulfil the philosophical law in himself, no one lives philosophically with that simple loyalty that constrained a man of antiquity to bear himself as a Stoic wherever he was, whatever he did, once he had affirmed his loyalty to the Stoa All modern philosophizing is political and official, limited by governments, churches, academies, customs and the cowardice of men to the appearance of scholarshipAre there still human beings, one then asks oneself, or perhaps only thinking , writing , and speaking machines 5 Only superior strength can judge, weakness is obliged to tolerate6 To sum up history is written by the experienced and superior man He who has not experienced greater andexalted things than others will not know how to interpret the great and exalted things of the past When the past speaks it always speaks in an oracle only if you are an architect of the future and know the present will you understand it 6 Satiate your soul with Plutarch and when you believe in his heroes dare at the same time to believe in yourself 6 There is, indeed, rejoicing that now science is becoming to dominate life that condition may, possibly, be attained but life thus dominated is not of much value because it is far less living and guarantees far less life for the future than did a former life dominated not by knowledge but by instinct and powerful illusions But the present age is, as aforesaid, supposed to be an age,m not of whole, mature and harmonious personalities, but of labour and of the greatest possible common utility That means, however, that men have to be adjusted to the purposes of the age so as to be ready for employment as soon as possible they must labour in the factories of the general good before they are mature, indeed so that they shall not become mature for this would be a luxury which would deprive the labour market of a great deal of its workforce Some birds are blinded so that they may singbeautifully I do not think the men of today singbeautifully than their grandfathers, but I know they have been blinded 7our eternal destiny to be pupils of declining antiquity 8 The noblest and most exalted things make no effect whatever on the masses 9 __________Schopenhauer as Educator Let the youthful soul look back on life with the question what have you truly loved up to now, what has drawn your soul aloft, what has mastered it and at the same time blessed it 1 I discovered how wretched we modern men appear when compared with the Greeks and Romans even merely in the matter of a serious understanding of the tasks of education 2 He is honest even as a writer and so few writers are honest that one ought really to mistrust anyone who writes I know of only one writer whom I would compare with Schopenhauer, indeed set above him, in respect of honesty Montaigne That such a man wrote has truly augmented the joy of living on this earth, Since getting to know this freest and mightiest of souls, I at least have come to feel what he felt about Plutarch2 From his watchtower he has seen farther andclearly than other men, down into the reconciliation of knowledge with being3 He knew well that there is something higher and purer to be found and attained on this earth than the life of his own time, and that he who knows existence only in this ugly shape, and assesses it accordingly, does it a grave injustice 3 One no longer has the slightest notion how different the seriousness of philosophy is from the seriousness of a newspaper 4 As long as anyone desires life as he desires happiness he has not yet raised his eyes above the horizon of the animal, for he only desiresconsciously what the animal seeks through blind impulse 5 We labour at our daily workardently and thoughtlessly than is necessary to sustain our life because to us it is evennecessary not to have leisure to stop and think 5 For the question is this how can your life, the individual life, receive the highest value, the deepest significance How can it be least squandered Certainly only by living off the good of the rarest and most valuable exemplars and not for the good of the majority 6 Science is related to wisdom as virtuousness is related to holiness it is cold and dry, it has not love and knows nothing of a deep feeling of inadequacy and longing It is as useful to self as it is harmful to its servants, insofar as it transfers its own character to them, and thereby ossifies their humanity As long as what is meant by culture is essentially the promotion of science, culture will pass the great suffering human being by with pitiless coldness, because science sees everywhere only problems of knowledge and because within the world of the sciences suffering is really something improper and incomprehensible, thus at best only oneproblem.But if one accustoms oneself to translating every experience into a dialectical question and answer game and into an affair purely of the head, it is astonishing in how short a time such an occupation will wither a man up, how soon he becomes almost nothing but bones Everyone knows and perceives this fact so how is it nonetheless possible for young men not to start back at the sight of such skeletons, but on the contrary again and again blindly to give themselves over to the sciences without restraint of selectivity It can hardly originate in any supposed desire for truth for how could there exist any desire at all for cold, pure, inconsequential knowldege 6 Such natures are collectors, explainers, compilers of indices and herbariums they study and prowl around in a single domain simply because it never occurs to them that other domains exist Their industriousness possesses something of the tremendous stupidity of the force of gravity which is why they often achieve a great deal 6 The only critique of a philosophy that is possible and that proves something, namely trying to see whether one can live in accordance with it, has never been taught at universities 7 __________Richard Wagner in Bayreuth We, on the other hand, we disciples of art resurrected, will have the time and the will for profound, serious reflection 1 The individual must be consecrated to something higher than himself 4 He has gone beyond all vanities of this sort 5 Here are two examples to demonstrate how perverse the sensibilities of our age have become and how the age has no perception of this perversity In former times one looked down with honest nobility on people who dealt in money as a business, even though one had need of them one admitted to oneself that every society had to have intestines Now, as the most covetous of its regions, they are the ruling power in the soul of modern humanity In former times there was nothing one was warned againstthan against taking the day, the moment, too seriously one was urged nil admiriari and to be concerned with matters of eternity now only one kind of seriousness still remains in the modern soul, that directed towards the news brought by the newspapers or the telegraph 6 He who desired to liberate art, to restore its desecrated sanctity, would first have to have liberated himself from the modern soul 6friend of art and literature and aesthetically refined 8


  3. Conor Conor says:

    I ll start with why I liked this and why I was happy to be reading the big N again, then move on to why I didn t like it, and why this edition is lacking or, if you re not up for reading the stuff below, he s a summary I kind of liked it, and I m never picking up a available in english for the first time translation ever again ANECDOTE ALERT I went to the museum of contemporary art the other day, and found an interesting little piece A female character from a classic oil paitining w I ll start with why I liked this and why I was happy to be reading the big N again, then move on to why I didn t like it, and why this edition is lacking or, if you re not up for reading the stuff below, he s a summary I kind of liked it, and I m never picking up a available in english for the first time translation ever again ANECDOTE ALERT I went to the museum of contemporary art the other day, and found an interesting little piece A female character from a classic oil paitining was taken out of context and placed on a mirror instead of a canvas In case the purpose of this might be lost, a helpful placard explained that the addition of the mirror creates a situation wherein the viewer s role as participant becomes part of the piece Light is thrown back on the viewer REFLECTION ON ANECDOTE ALERT This is something I was reminded of while reading the fourth essay when N says the task of modern art, too, suddenly becomes clear stupefaction or delerium To put to sleep or intoxicateto defend man against himselfgaze into the flickering and smokey fire of their art, for they do not want light, they want bedazzlement they hate light when it is thrown upon themselves Which is exactly why I still like to read N he was way ahead of his time He does a fantastic job of speaking to people, who, at his time, were not born yet It s to the point where I ve heard people with a casual interest in philosophy say that his ideas are obvious I ve felt that this is because so many of them exist fulfilled allready These are the ideas that I like the most, the ones that he saw coming and traced the roots of, the ones that were untimely for him And now back to the point What I don t like about these essays, are what timly is for him his appriciatation of Schopenhaur and Wagner, who he had net yet moved past, and the fact that his delicious style that tasty fusion of Schopenhaur and La Rochefoucault s, isen t yet developed And now to gripe This edition Cambridge 1983 pissed me off It s translated by R.J Hollingdale with an introduction by J.P Stern, neither of whom any details are given on Are they philosophers Philogists Plumbers No one printing this edition seemed to know What is clear is that they both seem willing to give their opinion of the text, without establishing any base of crediblity, rather like some bespectacled and argyle wrapped coffee house characters Hollingdale assures us in the introduction that there is nothing particularly untimely about these four meditations and then says they deal with contemporary themes and that nobody reads David Strauss seriously any Waitwhat Stern, in the meantime, shines with this gem of a footnote from p86 Alludes to the closing lines of Goethe s Faust Nietzsche often alludes to the phrase, always in an ironic humorous tone he failed, I think, to discover any meaning in it Well, that s interestingno, wait What the hell DID YOU JUST INTERJECT YOURSELF INTO THE TEXT WHERE IS WALTER KAUFFMAN WHEN I NEED HIM Note The new Cambridge editions green cover have a different and better introduction, and no longer have the offending footnote I ve since Wikipedia d both Hollingdale and Stern and they re well respected While this does make me feel less like I wasted my time reading this translation, one has to wonder how seriously the text has changedand I m reminded that getting updated translations not only means a better read, better spacing and type facing, but also means avoiding such bizzare lack of editor situations


  4. Brent McCulley Brent McCulley says:

    Written in Nietzsche s early formative years, from 1873 76, right after he penned his Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche s Untimely Meditations are truly out of season The four essays are all fairly short, but compiled together make a substantive book nevertheless.The best two essays are the last two, viz., Nietzsche on history and Schopenhauer In On the Use and Abuse of History, Nietzsche explores ideas such as History being good only insofar as it contributes towards life That objectivity Written in Nietzsche s early formative years, from 1873 76, right after he penned his Birth of Tragedy, Nietzsche s Untimely Meditations are truly out of season The four essays are all fairly short, but compiled together make a substantive book nevertheless.The best two essays are the last two, viz., Nietzsche on history and Schopenhauer In On the Use and Abuse of History, Nietzsche explores ideas such as History being good only insofar as it contributes towards life That objectivity was merely a late nineteenth century German historian staring down a well only to see the reflection of himself at the bottom He ridicules liberal arts education, German culture lack thereof , Hegelianism, the spirit of the age, Statism, teleology, Darwinian evolution, Utilitarianism, andNietzsche saw the need to return back to the individual, back to art as a means of beauty, illusion, and passion, and back to forgetfulness as a means to understanding history as well as exercising power as a means to life, and not merely submitting passively to the power of history, or the then popular pervasive notion that history was teleologically driving itself forward to ultimate conscienceness and final consummation, which Nietzsche laughs at as if God was first created by history 122.These essays are instrumental in tracing Nietzsche s thought development whilst at his University post at Basel as a Dr of philology Ironically, Nietzsche ends his last essay chiding University Professors, in contradistinction to philosophy professors not bowed down to the State, who remain as free spirits, and individuals like the Ancient Greek philosophers or like Schopenhauer, who Nietzsche praises, albeit he would later break with Schopenhauerean metaphysics As soon as philosophy can sever itself from the universities and be purified from every impure motive, it will able to become such a tribunal 171 Ironically, and poignantly, Nietzsche lived off his meager University pension until he went mad and forfeited his autonomy to the behest of his sister in 1889.If nothing else, everyone should read the essay on history, which is brilliantly sarcastic, witty, and profound


  5. Griffin Wilson Griffin Wilson says:

    Of the dozen or so Nietzsche works I have read this would certainly make my top 5 This is a collection of 4 essays, one criticizing David Friedrich Strauss hot air and empty words, one in praise of the famous romantic composer who he would later turn against Richard Wagner, one on the philosophy of history which, I believe, is the one work of Nietzsche that undergrads will often read, this essay also apparently changed the life and approach of Foucault , and one extolling the philosophy and Of the dozen or so Nietzsche works I have read this would certainly make my top 5 This is a collection of 4 essays, one criticizing David Friedrich Strauss hot air and empty words, one in praise of the famous romantic composer who he would later turn against Richard Wagner, one on the philosophy of history which, I believe, is the one work of Nietzsche that undergrads will often read, this essay also apparently changed the life and approach of Foucault , and one extolling the philosophy and life of Arthur Schopenhauer.I would give the first, third, and fourth essays all 4, probably 5, stars some familiarity with the figures addressed renders the numerous jokes and criticismsappreciable.The second essay on Wagner , however, I did not appreciate I would attribute this partly to my superficial knowledge of the man for all I know about him comes from Nietzsche and to my unfortunate philistinism regarding classical music


  6. Ryan Ryan says:

    This book consists of 4 longish essays from early in Nietzsche s career The misunderstood German has stated that Schopenhauer as Educator is a great synopsis of his overall view of the world This is the only essay of the four that I have read This alone is well worth the price of the book.Schopenhauer as Educator is the kind of edifying philosophy that I really love In spirit it has many similarities with Emerson s Self Reliance.If you are interested in Nietzsche you have to read this book This book consists of 4 longish essays from early in Nietzsche s career The misunderstood German has stated that Schopenhauer as Educator is a great synopsis of his overall view of the world This is the only essay of the four that I have read This alone is well worth the price of the book.Schopenhauer as Educator is the kind of edifying philosophy that I really love In spirit it has many similarities with Emerson s Self Reliance.If you are interested in Nietzsche you have to read this book Unless, of course, you don t care to


  7. hami hami says:

    A very difficult book to read in English The best translation I have found is the one by Ludovici and Collins The worst is by R.J Hollingdale Untimely Meditations published by Cambridge University Press The good translation by Ludovici and Collins, however, is published by Digireads.com and has the worst introduction by anti semitic and white nationalist Oscar Levy written in 1909 His review was probably the most racist and white nationalist academic writing I have ever read The introducti A very difficult book to read in English The best translation I have found is the one by Ludovici and Collins The worst is by R.J Hollingdale Untimely Meditations published by Cambridge University Press The good translation by Ludovici and Collins, however, is published by Digireads.com and has the worst introduction by anti semitic and white nationalist Oscar Levy written in 1909 His review was probably the most racist and white nationalist academic writing I have ever read The introduction of the Cambridge University Press by Daniel Breazeale is very deep and enlightening.The Digireads book has the essays non chronologically It has the first and last meditation as Part 1 and has the second and third meditation as Part 2 It works better because I could just ignore the part 1, which contains the 2 most boring works of Nietzsche David Strauss, the Confessor and the Writer and Richard Wagner in Bayreuth You need to have a full scholarship to read both of those essays and not fall sleep Although Nietzsche admits that the real subject of the essays Richard Wagner in Bayreuth and Schopenhauer as Educator is himself, we don t see the usual fire that is inside his writings in part 1 of meditations I think, its mostly, due to Nietzsche s narrow focus on the German condition rather than a border analyzation that we see in part 2 of the meditations That might be the reason he abandons the projects after finishing the Richard Wagner in Bayreuth.The young Nietzsche was into Schopenhauer, Goethe, and Machiavelli The mature Nietzsche was into Stendhal, Dostoyevsky and again Machiavelli He might have been inspired by La Rochefoucauld for his aphorisms in the latter part of his life but I don t think the influence was as high as other figures.It is also understandable that writing of thesis meditations is simultaneous with Nietzsche s shift of interest from philology to philosophy Nietzsche seems to be focusing on concepts of culture and evolution of culture through education , especially in Schopenhauer as Educator I am not sure if by culture he means national culture I wouldn t expect him to know any better, especially that 140 years ago culture was widely understood to belong to nations The state was the precursor to culture In that view, without state, there would be no culture a colonial idea that dominated the 19th century Europe and dehumanized southern peoples with a darker complexion Montserrat Guibernau has a great essay on this topic in analyzing Anthony D Smith s national identity and culture She focused on the idea that the European conception of nation and culture often mixed with the notion of state In this view, the existence of nations without state becomes undermined.The right wing interpreters of Nietzsche admire this book because it contains most of Nietzsche s philosophy minus the most important part harsh and direct attack on Christianity Currently but for not much longer I live in Finland The brute skin head racism here functions similar to the rest of the white majority countries The idea that a traditionally white nation cannot become mixed with darker peoples Recently, Jussi Halla aho the leader of the second largest political party in Finland True Finns announced that the only real Finnish people are white and Christian Simultaneous with this type of violence, some white academics who see themselves in opposition with the far right mentality, think racism is an import of globalization and a side effect of the current economic system They omit the notion of racial cultural homogeneity and monochrome Christian practices and its history.On Nietzsche s criticism of Christianity, Reza Aslan comes to mind, an academic who wrote the book Zealot The Life and Times of Jesus of Nazareth on the life of Jesus Since 2013, he received much criticism simultaneous with death threats solely because he is Muslim In some part of the book, he argued how the catholic church has preferred to promote Jesus as a peaceful spiritual teacher rather than a politically motivated revolutionary who urged his followers to keep his identity a secret.Going back to Nietzsche, his meditation On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life was the essay that inspired Foucault in his work on madness Schopenhauer as Educator has probably inspired other post modern thinkers who were interested not just in culture but in different modes of thinking and knowledge production Edward Said ends his introduction of Orientalism 1978 with a quote from Raymond Williams and invites us to engage in a process which will result in unlearning of the inherent dominative mode of thinking We see the roots of this idea not just in Schopenhauer as Educator but in Nietzsche s life itself How do you break with your teacher and friend, who have uplifted you to where you are Andimportant than that how do you engage in a field that is completely antagonistic to what you have been taught We can see the evolution of Nietzsche s oeuvre from Richard Wagner in Bayreuth to Nietzsche contra Wagner which he wrote in the last years of his career And we can see a change in Nietzsche s mode of living from Wagner years to his solitude and madness Similar to his Zarathustra who first ascents to the mountains to solitude, then descend back to humanity One might interpret this process as an Eternal Return eternal recurrence a non Deleuzian interpretation of the concept which is contrary to Deleuze s Eternal Return as the moment in which extremity of differences is reached.As far as historical heretics and political activists names such as Mansur Al Hallaj and Shahab al Din Suhrawardi come to my mind Mansur al Hallaj was a Persian mystic, poet and teacher of Sufism in his book, Kitaab al Tawaaseen 902 he mentions If you do not recognize God, at least recognize His sign, I am the creative truthbecause through the truth, I am eternal truth Ana al Haqq I m the truth God This is the place where we have to be reminded of writing with one s own blood , writing as an activist, making art as an activist Acontemporary figure that comes to mind in reading Nietzsche s Meditations is Malcolm X He has definitely read Nietzsche or at least On the Uses and Disadvantages of History for Life Malcolm understood the notion of healing the wounds which he also referred to in some of the interviews Thinking about Nietzsche s emphasis on the philosopher s way of life, and what Nietzsche himself has done to Wagner, we can see a correlation to Malcolm X s life What Malcolm X has done to Elijah Muhammad is not much different than what Nietzsche has done to Wagner although we can agree that anti semitic Wagner was a much lower and nastier character than Elijah Muhammad How do you break apart from your teacher, admit our mistake, mature yourself and your ideas In almost every photo or interview, Malcolm X is smiling and laughing How to maintain a cheerful attitude toward life in the midst of dark and gloomy events Malcolm X was always direct and on point One of the examples of ideal greatness which Nietzsche used in Thus Spoke Zarathustra was borrowed from ancient Persians To speak the truth, and be skillful with bow and arrow Shooting well with arrows has a connotation to be on point and straight forward 1 In order to determine this degree of history and, through that, the borderline at which the past must be forgotten if it is not to become the gravedigger of the present, we have to know precisely how great the plastic force of a person, a people, or a culture is I mean that force of growing in a different way out of oneself, of reshaping and incorporating the past and the foreign, of healing wounds, compensating for what has been lost, rebuilding shattered forms out of one s self There are people who possess so little of this force that they bleed to death incurably from a single experience, a single pain, often even from a single tender injustice, as from a really small bloody scratch On the other hand, there are people whom the wildest and most horrific accidents in life and even actions of their own wickedness injure so little that right in the middle of these experiences or shortly after they bring the issue to a reasonable state of well being with a sort of quiet conscience On the Use and Abuse of History for Life, translated by Ian C Johnston Malcolm X s life can be an embodiment of Nietzschean philosophy, a better example than the life Nietzsche lived himself One can argue that Malcolm X might have been slightly inspired by Nietzsche, or maximally Malcolm X completed Nietzsche s philosophy by actualizing it in his own life Nietzsche s philosophy is not made to be actualized or utilized in a state level, cultural level, or worst national cultural It starts with the individual and stops at the individual level His critique of modernity and modern humans is one and the same Every philosophy which believes that the problem of existence is touched on, not to say solved, by a political event is a joke and pseudo philosophy Many states have been founded since the world began that is an old story How should a political innovation suffice to turn men once and for all into contented inhabitants of the earth But if anyone really does believe in this possibility he ought to come forward, for he truly deserves to become a professor of philosophy at a German university Schopenhauer as Educator, translation by R J Hollingdale, 1984 Cambridge University Press Culture and the state let no one deceive himself here are antagonists cultural state is just a modern idea The one lives off the other, the one flourishes at the expense of the other All great periods in culture are periods of political decline anything which is great in a cultural sense was unpolitical, even antipolitical Twilight of the Idols, translated by Large, Duncan 2 In a talk about Nietzsche and Derrida, Spivak mentioned that the life of an activist requiresthan writing Gramsci, Malcolm X, and such people didn t just write books, they had notebooks or a series of essays and speeches Gramsci and Malcolm X were operating outside of the academy, next to their communities and comrades where their struggle was taking shape They were writing with blood.At the first look, there might not be any similarity between Malcolm X and Nietzsche The former was a political activist and the latter was a philosopher artist The former was a Muslim minister and the latter was a Christian heretic and son of a Lutheran minister Malcolm was nationally famous at the time of his assassination Nietzsche was almost unknown outside of his close circle at the time of his death Yet, there might be some parallel characteristics between the two In the past, there has been some informal comparison between these two figures and their works For instance, Malcolm X s House Negro Speech and Nietzsche s On the Genealogy of Morality.Both Nietzsche and Malcolm X were tired of their contemporary condition, the political climate of their region, and the failed struggles of the past generations that were passed on to them Nietzsche took refuge in Greek tragedy, classical antiquity and Pre Socratic philosophy Malcolm took refuge in Islam, international black struggles, Pan Africanism and Organization of Afro American Unity They both experienced a dramatic shift in their ideology and position, although with different intensities Nietzsche shifted away from Wagner and German Wagnerism, and Malcolm X shifted from Elijah Muhammad and Nation of Islam toward acomprehensive radical positionality, especially in regard to white Americans When Malcolm was in prison he read Nietzsche, Schopenhauer, and Kant In his autobiography, he described his education Many who today hear me somewhere in person, or on television, or those who read something I ve said, will think I went to school far beyond the eighth grade This impression is due entirely to my prison studies 3 One contrast between Malcolm and Nietzsche s life is that Nietzsche s isolation and his idea s of solitude have very radical individual aspect built into it, while Malcolm s struggle as much as it was personal, to a great degree it was a predicate from the general social isolation of African Americans in pre Civil Rights Act of 1964 America Both Malcolm and Nietzsche disliked alcohol drinking and smoking The heaviest weight What if some day or night a demon were to steal into your loneliest loneliness and say to you This life as you now live it and have lived it you will have to live once again and innumerable times again and there will be nothing new in it, but every pain and every joy and every thought and sigh and everything unspeakably small or great in your life must return to you, all in the same succession and sequence even this spider and this moonlight between the trees, and even this moment and I myself The eternal hourglass of existence is turned over again and again, and you with it, speck of dust Would you not throw yourself down and gnash your teeth and curse the demon who spoke thus Or have you once experienced a tremendous moment when you would have answered him You are a god, and never have I heard anythingdivine If this thought gained power over you, as you are it would transform and possibly crush you the question in each and every thing, Do you want this again and innumerable times again would lie on your actions as the heaviest weight Nietzsche, Friedrich The Gay Science Cambridge University Press, 2001, p 194 I like to connect Nietzsche with the new Iranian nationalism and opposition to the Islamic Republic which sometimes results in Islamophobia and another version of Uncle Tomism of the Middle East Nietzsche is a very dangerous thinker, he can mess you up or uplift you to a higher human As he says, I am not a man, I am a Dynamite What you get out of Nietzsche can depend on many things, how you read him, and when you read him, where you are in society and where you have come from Nietzsche is not only against God, but he is against the god like sovereign world view The universalism of European objectivity and concepts such as theology, history and even science are deeply problematic for him Reading Nietzsche after leaving Iran to Germany transformed Aramesh Dustdar an Iranian Heideggerian philosopher into an Islamophobe In 2010, after the Green movement in Iran, he wrote a letter to J rgen Habermas, condemning Islam and calling the recent events in Iran as Shia Iranian magic show staged by a bunch of crafty pretenders to philosophy 4 This letter sparked a lot of debate among Iranian intellectual community condemning Dustdar for his Eurocentric views upholding the orientalist banner non Europeans are incapable of thinking.According to Badiou wink wink , Modernism started in music before fine arts and Richard Wagner was one of the people who started it Even if we want to speak in such a categorical language, Wagner s violent modernism was challenged by Nietzsche who took up the task of overcoming the centricity of the absolute mediums He identified as an artistthan a philosopher and often used poetry in his works He believed that old school rigid theoreticians inside European academies and philosophy as a whole are following the footpath of Hegel s absolute knowledge and scientific objectivity Something that he saw very dangerous and sought to overcome What people in earlier times gave the church, people now give, although in scantier amounts, to science Anti semitic Wager used the term Gesamtkunstwerk total work of art for his operas where all sorts of visual and auditory mediums were combined music, dance, theatre, and images There is an array of white supremacists supporting Wagner s case from Hitler to today s Roger Scruton on defending Wagner and bringing back the very white pure European modernity which Scruton calls high culture , he writes Modern high culture is as much a set of footnotes to Wagner as Western philosophy is, in Whitehead s judgement, footnotes to Plato 5 let us leave the superhistorical people to their revulsion and their wisdom Today for once we would much rather become joyful in our hearts with our lack of wisdom and make the day happy for ourselves as active and progressive people, as men who revere the process Let our evaluation of the historical be only a western bias, if only from within this bias we at least move forward and not do remain still, if only we always just learn better to carry on history for the purposes of living For we will happily concede that the superhistorical people possesswisdom than we do, so long, that is, as we may be confident that we possesslife than they do For thus at any rate our lack of wisdom will haveof a future than their wisdom Insofar as history stands in the service of life, it stands in the service of an unhistorical power and will therefore, in this subordinate position, never be able to and should never be able to become pure science, something like mathematics However, the problem to what degree living requires the services of history generally is one of the most important questions and concerns with respect to the health of a human being, a people, or a culture For with a certain excess of history, living crumbles away and degenerates Moreover, history itself also degenerates through this decay 6 insideanairport


  8. Christian Christian says:

    To Nietzsche, clarity can sit in a comprised motley of only rare, uncommon, affirmative and essential things necessitated by those that come unwarily striking with an assertive primness His utter concern and piercing critique amongst his own, the Germans, led to the healthy isolation and time of meditation of himself Around the time this work was published with the four installments, his thirst for knowledge and understanding of human nature began to surface in his way of saying, he was begi To Nietzsche, clarity can sit in a comprised motley of only rare, uncommon, affirmative and essential things necessitated by those that come unwarily striking with an assertive primness His utter concern and piercing critique amongst his own, the Germans, led to the healthy isolation and time of meditation of himself Around the time this work was published with the four installments, his thirst for knowledge and understanding of human nature began to surface in his way of saying, he was beginning to become and cultivate his self overcoming the development of the philosophical genius With his patent release of emotion as well as rational reasonableness of vitiation to the Germans, it was public opinion that directly appealed to him, how the masses behave instrumentally, radically silent about strange but necessary instincts how the paradigms of sociable time played out, and most importantly, how thinking became unimportant and considered the least stimulating activity to them His development of becoming the philosophical genius rose incrementally once he abdicated from teaching as a Philologist professor due to his approaching illness that unexpectedly prowled within him It was however, the pushing stimulant that led to his wondrous discovery of solitude, where he announced in his meditations, that is where one can truly begin to find oneself, develop and cultivate their genius and become what one aspires to be in accordance to the inherent principles of nature This is no simple, easy and innocuous task for one that can miraculously discover the beauty of necessity of their solitude, as he also mentioned It became transparent to him that in all places, their is always only a few that can and will strive and mentally fight for this growth of oneself that lies deep within Yes, only a few that can feel above the others , the public opinion adherents, while sober, aware, variegated, distinctive, affirmative and strong willing to confront the hardships life squanders unto them we could say all but many do not heed Decision making remained something indecisive in many Germans as previously mentioned With the few that could rise above, like Nietzsche himself, from the collective norm of imitated activity , as he called it, his exploring and vivid descriptions of Schopenhauer and Wagner were a splendor and great aid to those in high hopes to discover and master this genius within themselves Through this exploration of oneself, one can still become wary to learning the essentials of life, reluctant to accept the immoral realities of existence itself, and possibly even taciturn to the automated publicly opinionated once becoming sentient that they will perceive them as irreparably insane But this is the type of suffering and treatment required for one to give new culture to the people, to work on only themselves and then after reaching mastery teach those what man can only comprehend through rigorous solitude Culture was also noted as something deadly and necessary at the same time for the becoming of life It shouldn t be adulterated however, that it comes off as sly to those that suffer and are venturing for new and life affirming objectives Nietzsche resumes with that thought to strongly display the adventurous pains Schopenhauer exemplified, as he noted him as educator one every spirit looking for cultivation can learn from Schopenhauer developed an unfortunately predominant lifestyle of limitations on forever longing to not become anything like the genius Nietzsche prescribes with illumination However, it is because Nietzsche understood Schopenhauer s disposition as a pessimist and an irrational radical, he employed himself to teach the few free spirited and conscientious readers virtually through Schopenhauer s unalterable pattern of forever suffering As unfortunate it was for Schopenhauer, he understood his disposition to life and could not improve his introspective perception and that is what Nietzsche stratified Speaking directly on Schopenhauer, he was very inclined to consume knowledge and make it applicable to his everyday living, but on his venture for this knowing, this way to become, he underestimated truth from the very beginning He held one facet of himself that forever willed through his own world of idealism then there lies his other phase where he dangerously fought for truth but remained outweighed by his moralistic side of seeking a personal utopia He became synchronous with the abyss, forever floating in the dark passageways of nothingness but this deemed as beneficial to those aiming to overcome this almost impossible, but possible, surmountable adventure Schopenhauer never strayed from it is why he deserves at least some merit Art and music to Nietzsche, as described in this writing, already hold existence elsewhere before becoming envisaged and manifested in one s creation or edifice of work The same as art allows many to become ponderous, contemplative and reflective to sometimes other aspects of life is how one feels when dreaming That precise assertion ismagnetic to those deliberate in mind of Nietzsche s assessment of life itself, as he dangerously spilled in The Birth of Tragedy, his first published book His old friendship with the German musician Richard Wagner was an unexpected transfiguration Nietzsche goes to extreme and necessary levels of thought for the sake of art to explain his growing aversion of the music of Wagner and its moral placements Wagner, like Schopenhauer, could also be viewed and embodied as an educator Wagner was a man of education, general to becandid, which comprised a tyrannical side to him as Nietzsche specifically said The other was theartistic, free going, intrepid and colorful side of Wagner that allowed him to understand his creationsrealistically, personally in a naturalistic sense , profoundly and declare himself quietly as the tragic hero that will learn to overcome his former creations Nietzsche stated that through experiencing tragedy, hardships, suffering, baleful contortions through experimentation of life, then that is when one can equate themselves with nature and forever mobilize in repose Wagner, according to Nietzsche, understood where the art of his music was heading as a theatrical performer And the only way to grasp this greatness that is already within him, he immediately transferred the whole of himself to being solitary It was there he found his true self , the honest and luminous soul that became out of enforced solitude to deliver to the masses who probably never understood the vital transition in his music a bewildered and enriching style of expression He was blown into realization once he experienced this necessary tragedy of experimentation with the inner complexities of his inner self and brought it to his outer self, shattering in him something tyrannical , overly moral and blemished For an event to possess greatness two things must come together greatness of spirit in those who accomplish it and greatness of spirit in those who experience it No event possesses greatness in itself, though it involve the disappearance of whole constellations, the destruction of entire peoples, the foundation of vast states or the prosecution of wars involving tremendous forces and tremendous losses the breath of history has blown away many things of that kind as though they were flakes of snow It can also happen that a man of force accomplishes a deed which strikes a reef and sinks from sight having produced no impression a brief, sharp echo, and all is over History has virtually nothing to report about such as it were truncated and neutralized events And so whenever we see an event approaching we are overcome with the fear that those who will experience it will be unworthy of it Whenever one acts, in small things as in great, one always has in view this correspondence between deed and receptivity and he who gives must see to it that he find recipients adequate to the meaning of his gift This is why even the individual deed of a man great in himself lacks greatness if it is brief and without resonance or effect for at the moment he performed it he must have been in error as to its necessity at precisely that time he failed to take correct aim and chance became master over him whereas to be great and to possess a clear grasp of necessity have always belonged strictly together With these Untimely Meditations, Nietzsche began to show new developing colors of himself and manifested new ideals, butnaturalistic ones that played in concordant motion with nature It was fortunate up to that time for him to experience this self rumination and position as a developing iconoclast that began to beseech the oppressed for necessary and pragmatic reasons, which eventually led to his solidified disposition to universal education, cultural reformation, the paradoxical complexities of art, the logical dissection of Christianity and the contriving will to overcome nihilism


  9. Matthew Matthew says:

    Full disclosure i skimmed the end of the boring wagner one


  10. Berkay Aras Berkay Aras says:

    Asl nda her insan ok iyi bilir ki D nyaya yaln zca bir defal na, tek rnek olarak gelmi tir ve bu kadar a rt c renklilikteki bir ok eyi, kendisindeki gibi tek bir ey halinde bir araya getiren bir o kadar da tuhaf rastlant , ikinci bir kez ger ekle meyecektir Bilir ama bir vicdan rahats zl gibi gizler bunu ni in Gelene e uyulmas n isteyen ve kendisini de gelenekle gizleyen kom usundan duydu u korku y z nden nsanlar korkak olduklar ndan daha fazla tembeller ve zellikle de, Asl nda her insan ok iyi bilir ki D nyaya yaln zca bir defal na, tek rnek olarak gelmi tir ve bu kadar a rt c renklilikteki bir ok eyi, kendisindeki gibi tek bir ey halinde bir araya getiren bir o kadar da tuhaf rastlant , ikinci bir kez ger ekle meyecektir Bilir ama bir vicdan rahats zl gibi gizler bunu ni in Gelene e uyulmas n isteyen ve kendisini de gelenekle gizleyen kom usundan duydu u korku y z nden nsanlar korkak olduklar ndan daha fazla tembeller ve zellikle de, mutlak bir d r stl n ve plakl n kendilerine y kleyece i zorluklardan korkarlar en ok Yaln zca sanat lar, b yle d n al nm davran larla ve e reti kan larla kay ts zca ortal kta dola maktan nefret ederler ve herkesin s rr n , vicdan rahats zl n , her insan n bir defal k bir mucize oldu unu if a ederler biz insanlara, insan n kaslar n n en k k bir k p rt s na kadar bizzat kendisi, yaln zca kendisi oldu unu ve daha fazlas n , insan n bu biricikli inin kesin bir sonucu olarak, g zel ve bak lmaya de er oldu unu, do an n her yap t gibi yeni ve inan lmaz oldu unu ve kesinlikle can s k c olmad n s ylemeye cesaret ederler B y k d n r, insanlar a a lad nda onlar n tembelli ini a a lamaktad r nk bu tembellik y z nden birer seri imalat r n , nemsiz, ili ki kurmaya ve e itilmeye de mez olarak g r nmektedirler Kitleye dahil olmak istemeyen insan n yapmas gereken ey, kendine raz olmay b rakmakt r kendisine seslenen vicdan n dinlemelidir Kendin ol imdi yapt n, d nd n ve arzulad n eylerin hi biri sen de ilsin B Nas l keseyim imdi bu b y k paragraf bir taraf ndan. u i sesimize kulak vermek ok mu cidden , minimini v z lt s kendin ol kendin ol onu duymayan ya da istemeyen tembellik midir, d ar daki g r lt de kaybolmay ye leyen i ses kimlerde g r l g r l b ylelikle yaman m yaman bir ya ama at lan ama bir o kadar de erli Sanat lar n m Tam burada Sanat demi ken.., m thi bir kavram ele imiz olmal Zira bu aralar her eyin sanat tak s var Kendi l tlerimize ve yasam za g re ya amak i in Ortaya kmak i in sonsuz zaman m z varken, zellikle bug n ya yor olu umuz, neden ve ni in zellikle imdi ortaya kt m z g stermek i in k sac k bir bug nden fazla zamana sahip olmay m z, ak l almaz bir durumdur Kendi varolu umuz hakk nda kendimize kar sorumluyuz bu y zden, bu varolu un ger ek d mencileri de kendimiz olmal y z ve varolu umuzun k r bir rastlant sall a benzemesine izin vermemeliyiz Biraz pervas zca, biraz tehlikeli ya amal bu varolu u.B imdi nsan imdi ye varabilmek i in ok fazla gelece e yat r m yolu al yor O gelecek nezaman imdi ye erecek ok ok az ki ide o imdi i e i a yor kan mca Tek bir yol vard r d nyada, senden ba ka kimsenin gidemeyece i Nereye mi g t r r bu yol Sorma, y r o yolu Kimdi u c mleyi s yleyen Bir adam yolunun onu nereye g t rd n bilmedi i zamanlardakinden daha fazla y celemez asla B Sorma y r o yolu Delice soru atmosferlerinde yeti en bir insana g z kebilen o biricik yol i in imdi yeni bir meydan okuma sormadan y r mek onu. imdiye kadar neyi sevdin i tenlikle, ne ekti ruhunu kendine, ona h kmeden ve ayn zamanda seni mutlu eden neydi Bu y ce eyler dizisini g z n n n ne getir, belki varl klar ve sonu lar yla bir yasa sunarlar sana, as l benli inin temel yasas n Kar la t r bu eyleri, birinin bir di erini nas l b t nledi ini, geni letti ini, a t n , y celtti ini g r, imdi zerinden karak kendine do ru y kseldi in bir merdiven olu turduklar n g r Hayalimdeki e itici filozof, merkezi g c ke fetmekle kalmayacak onun teki g lere kar yok edici bir etkide bulunmas n nlemeyi de bilecektir belki de, onun e itiminin g revi, san r m insan bir b t n olarak, canl bir devinim i indeki bir g ne ve gezegenler sistemi bi iminde yeniden olu turmak ve onun en st mekani inin yasas n kavramakt r te yandan insanlar n ba na gelebilecek en ne eli ve en iyi ey, en derin eyi d nd kleri ve zellikle en canl eyi sevmeleri gerekti i i in ve zellikle en canl eyi sevmeleri gerekti i i in ve sonunda bir bilge olarak g zel olana e ilim duyan galiplerden birine yak n olmakt r Onlar ger ekten konu urlar, kekelemezler ve laf da uzatmazlar hareket ederler ve ger ekten ya arlar, insanlar n genelde ya ad klar gibi tekinsiz maskeler ard nda da ya amazlar Bu y zden onlar n yan nda kendimizi bir kez olsun ger ekten insanca ve do al hissederiz ve Goethe gibi seslenesimiz gelir Canl bir ey nas l da harika, nefis bir eydir Nas l da yerini bulmu tur nas l da hakiki, varl k doludur B Ya am a ben, mucizenin anlam yla denkde er g r yorum anlat mdaki ya am farkl , ona ben yaz n diyorum ama as l olan kendine anlatt n eyledi in yani bilin ile varl k ayr m n yapmak icap ediyor tabiri caizse art k konu ma makinas l ndan k p gerekli bir sessizli in sahibesi oldu un zaman meydana k yor Shopenhauerin etkisinden z mlenen 3 unsur D r stl k, ne elik, kal c l k Kendi kendisiyle ve kendisi i in konu tu undan ve yazd ndan t r d r stt r en zor eyi d nerek yendi i i in ne elidir ve yle olmas gerekti i i in kal c d r bir yer ekimi yasas gibi zorunlu olarak i ler nk felsefe insanlara, hi bir tiranl n i eri giremeyece i bir s na , i d nyan n ma aras n , g nl n labirentini a ar. Di er yandan da, yaln zca kendi ya am n oku ve buradan genel ya am n hiyerogliflerini z der her b y k felsefe Ki i onu yaln zca kendisi i in, kendi zavall l n ve zorunlulu unu, kendi s n rl l n kavramak i in, yani Benli ini feda etmek, onu en soylu niyetlere ve zellikle de adalete ve merhamete tabi k lmak i in yorumlamal d r Do aya yard mc olmak ve onun budalal klar n ve sakarl klar n biraz telafi etmek i in erk kazanmakt r bu hedef nceleri yaln zca ki inin kendisi i in ama kendisi sayesinde nihayetinde herkes i in.B Eylemin daima kendine do ru tekine de cabas , dolayl olarak kendinden sekerek Ya amak demek tehlike i inde olmak demektir T m b y k d n rlerin as l i i, eylerin l s n , ayar n , a rl n belirleyen ki i olmakt r nce ya am n hakiki, kanl canl , sa l kl olmas n g sterilmesini isteyecektir En az ndan kendisinin adil bir yarg olabildi ine inanmas i in, canl bir insan olmas gerekti ini hissedecektir zellikle yeni filozoflar n ya am n, ya ama istencinin en g l savunucular olmalar n n ve ya ad klar bitkin zamanlar n i inden, yeni bir k lt r , y celtilmi yeni bir Physisi zlemelerinin nedeni budur Ne var ki bu zlem ayn zamanda onlar bekleyen tehlikedir de i lerinde sava an ya am n reformcusu ve filozoftur yani ya am n yarg c d r Zafer hangi do rultuda olursa olsun, i inde bir kayb da bar nd racakt r B Sanat ve felsefenin belki de en y ce kazand rd ey canl olmak Kimsenin de g remedi i o kazan Canl bir karakterin perde arkas n g rmek b y k mesele tabi Bu varolu u y re inin derinliklerinde olumluyormusun sen Yetiyor mu sana Onun savunucusu, onun kurtar c s olacak m s n nk senin a z ndan kacak tek bir sahici Evet s zc yle bu a r su larla itham edilen ya am zg r kalacak Dobra dobra konu acak olursak Daha iyi olmas i in bir kere adamak ll k t olmam z gerekiyor Schopenhauer insan , hakikatli in g n ll zd rab n stlenir bu zd rap, kendi ba na buyruklu unu yok etmesine ve varl n n b t n yle d n mesi ve de i mesi i in haz rlanmaya yarar ya am n as l anlam da bu d n m ve de i ime g t rmektir Sizi m kemmelli e ta yan en h zl hayvan, ac ekmektir Felsefeciler, sanat lar ve azizler Hakikatli insanlard r bunlar, art k hayvan olmayanlard r asla s ramayan do a, onlar g r nd klerinde ve onlar n g r nmesi sayesnde, biricik s ray n ger ekle tirir Kendimizde ve d m zda filozofun, sanat n n ve azizin retilmesini te vik etmek ve b ylelikle do an n tamamlanmas i in al mak nk do a, filozofa nas l gereksinirse, sanat ya da gereksinir, metafizik bir ama i in, yani kendisini kendisi hakk nda ayd nlatmak i in Bilim kendisine hizmet edenlere ne kadar zarar verirse kendisine o kadar yarar sa lar, kendi karakterini onlara aktar r ve b ylelikle onlar n insanl n adeta kuru kemi e evirir nk adalet ate inden bir k v lc m, bir bilginin ruhuna d t nde, onun ya am n ve abas n tmaya ve ar tarak s slemeye yeter dolay s yla b yle bir bilginin art k huzuru kalmaz, s radan bilginlerin i lerini y r tt kleri l k ya da donuk ruh halinden sonsuza dek kovulur Do aya ayk r bir bi imde bilgin olmaya e itmekten daha zor ne olabilir Do an n, filozoflar ve sanat lar ortaya kartarak, insanlara ya am anlaml ve nemli k lmak istedi i, kurtulmay gereksinen kendi d rt s a s ndan kesindir ama filozoflarla ve sanat larla ula t etki ne kadar belirsiz, ne kadar zay f ve donuktur Sanat ve filozof, do an n ama lar ndaki bilgeli in en m kemmel rneklerini olu tursalar bile, onun ara lar n n amaca uygunlu una kar birer kan tt rlar Herkese ni an ald klar halde, k k bir gruba isabet ettirirler oysa bu ok az ki iye denk gelen mermiler de , filozofun ve sanat n n onlar f rlat an ndaki g le isabet etmezler nk filozofun as l dersi kendisinden almas gerekir ve kendi kendisi i in, t m d nyan n sureti ve k saltmas i levini g r r Bir kimse kendisine yabanc g r lerin arac l yla bakarsa, mucizeye bak n ki, orada g rd ey de yaln zca. yabanc g r lerdir..B Hakiki zg n olabilmek ne kadar zordur Kopyalama ne kadar oktur etrafta Ancak ger ekten ka lar n atan, hakikatin b a yla her eyi, devleti de masaya yat ran bir insan ortaya kacak oldu unda, devlet her eyden nce kendi varolu unu olumlad ndan, b yle bir insan kendisinden d lamak ve ona bir d man muamelesi yapmak hakk na sahiptir.Birincisi, devlet felsefi hizmet ilerini kendisi se er kurumlar na ve gereken say da tutar b ylece, iyi ve k t filozoflar aras nda bir ayr m yapabiliyormu edas n tak n r ve dahas , t m k rs lerine onlar yerle tirebilmek i in her zaman yeterince iyi filozof olmas gerekti ini var sayar Devlet imdi yaln zca filozoflar n iyi olu lar a s ndan de il, iyi olanlar n zorunlu say s a s ndan da otorite kesilmi tir kincisi, se tiklerini belir bir yerde, belirli insanlar aras nda, belirli bir i i yapma zere ya amaya zorlar se tiklerinin, istekli olan her akademik ra e itmeleri gerekir, hem de her g n, saptanm saatler i inde Soru Bir filozof her g n retecek bir eyleri olmas y k ml l n , vicdan rahatl yla kabul edebilir mi Bildi inden daha fazlas n biliyormu izlenimini vermesi gerekmez mi As l nemlisi, kendi dehas onu ne zaman a r rsa ve nereye a r rsa pe inden gitmek gibi harika bir zg rl kten mahrum b rakmaz m kendisini Denilecektir ki, b yle biri bir d n r de il, olsa olsa sonradan d nen, zerine d nen biri olur ama zellikle daha nceki t m d n rleri iyi bilen bir bilgin olur, bunlar hakk nda rencilerinin bilmedi i bir eyleri her zaman anlatabilecektir Bir felsefeye y nelik, m mk n olan ve bir eyler de kan tlayan biricik ele tiri, bu felsefeye g re ya an p ya anamayaca n deneme hi bir zaman niversitelerde retilmemi tir Aksine her zaman s zc kler hakk ndaki s zc klerin ele tirisi retilmi tir imdi, ya amda fazla bir deneyimi olmadan, s zc klerden ibaret elli sistemin ve bunlar n elli ele tirisinin yan yana ve i i e muhafaza edildi i gen bir zihni d n n nas l bir ss zl k, nas l bir yabanile me, felsefe e itimine y nelik nas l bir alay B niversite felsefesinin mezar ta nda b yle yazmal ym Kimseyi zmediM thi bir yan lsamal k var diye g r yorum felsefe e itiminin u baz hocalar nda Felsefe i e inin z n yemiyorlar da, onu sat yorlarm gibiler E itimi yemek pembe giyecek prestij vs ile takas etmek gibi bilin siz bir durumlar var D n rlerin bilginli ini yap yorlar s n flarda Fakat Onlar olmadan ayak i i yapanlar olmadan da deha do abilir mi Bundan i te emin olamad m B rak n filozoflar hi olmazsa yaban l olarak yeti sinler, onlara burjuva mesleklerinde g rev alma ve uyum sa lamaya dair hi bir umut vermeyin, onlar maa larla daha fazla pohpohlamay n, dahas Kovu turun onlar , ac mas z davran n onlara g receksiniz, harika eyler olacak Devletin kendisi de ok iyi biliyor, asla hizmet etmemenin asla maa almaman n, hakikatin z nde bulundu unu


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